Thursday, November 01, 2007

SOLIDARIEDADE




HOJE É DIA DE “PÃO POR DEUS”

(Para falar da solidariedade social)

Hoje podemos ver magotes de crianças com sacas de cozinha na mão a percorrer as ruas, bater às portas, entrar pelos cafés, desinibidas, a pedir «pão por Deus». No passado e na região de Leiria, dizia-se «pedir o santoro» (do latim, «santorum», dos santos - pão dos santos) que era uma merendeira doce que os mais abonados coziam (e alguns ainda cozem) para oferecer neste dia. Uns ofereciam merendeiras; outros, frutos secos, rebuçados, uma pequena moeda...
Trata-se da sobrevivência dum antigo costume rural que tinha a função social de manifestar a solidariedade entre a vizinhança (o pão recebido podia satisfazer uma família durante alguns dias). Os mais abonados manifestavam-se solidários dos mais pobres, e todos passavam por bons vizinhos porque cada um oferecia do que tinha. Com a mudança sociológica dos últimos quarenta anos, o costume foi recuperado pelas crianças. A função social do costume mudou:; já não visa a satisfação das necessidades dos mais pobres. As crianças integraram-no na sua visão da vida e transformaram-no numa forma de lazer: sair de casa, percorrer as povoações, pedir para si, constituir um pecúlio (de moedas ou de bombons...). E passou a ser o «dia das crianças». Aí vão elas a fazer pela vida. Metem tudo o que lhe derem na saca. O que «ganham» é para elas, como se de uma garantia de autonomia se tratasse... Lazer infantil, certo, mas o ambiente continua a ser de solidariedade.
O dia 1 de Novembro podia bem ser consagrado o Dia Português da Solidariedade. Porque é que só vamos atrás dos «dias mundiais» disto e daquilo? «Há tantos ‘dias mundiais’ que já não fazem mossa», ouvi há dias. A solidariedade deve ser em todos os dias, mas o de hoje podia ser o seu dia oficial, simbólico. Como as crianças recuperaram para si o velho costume, elas próprias podiam, neste dia, serem levadas a reflectir no valor social da solidariedade.
A solidariedade social é o grande tema do presente, e com futuro. Também este sofreu uma evolução. Outrora, a partilha chamava-se caridade, assistência, misericórdia... um valor religioso. Hoje, a solidariedade é um dever individual e colectivo, inscrito na estrutura do Estado e nos programas dos governos e das organizações supra-nacionais. Grande mudança. Na concepção tradicional, as populações só se sentiam obrigadas à solidariedade para com os seus conterrâneos e desde que estes fossem submissos, virtuosos, ortodoxamente religiosos, retribuidores ou agradecidos. A caridade era uma virtude privada; os estados não tinham essa atribuição. Com a modernidade, a solidariedade compete a todos em favor dos necessitados sem descriminação. No entanto, organizá-la e instituí-la constitui uma atribuição dos poderes públicos Só por estas mudanças, a modernidade - que muitos criticam sob vários aspectos - vale bem a pena.
Em Portugal, onde a modernidade veio tarde e se confunde com, apenas, as tecnologias, a solidariedade social ainda não é um valor tão afirmado como noutros países. No orçamento do estado português, a solidariedade social já absorve uma boa fatia dos impostos (doença, desemprego, reforma, inserção social, socorros internacionais...). Mas ainda é pouco. Repare-se que os contribuintes se queixam muito (e com razão) do mau destino que é dado aos seus impostos. No entanto, quando gastos nas áreas da solidariedade social, nunca os ouvimos dizer que são mal empregues.
Os políticos e os autarcas deviam pensar nisso. A solidariedade social é a melhor «bandeira» que se pode arvorar em política. Se estivesse nas minhas competências dar-lhes conselhos, dir-lhes-ia que, em vez de gastar os impostos do povo em obras de prestígio e de fachada, ostentatórias, fingidoras de riqueza e com um valor simbólico relativo, fariam «muitos mais amigos» (no seu caso, eleitores), se os dedicassem prioritariamente à solidariedade social que, essa sim, é um valor de futuro, absoluto e universal.
Moisés Espírito Santo (sociólogo) In Jornal de Leiria 1 de Novembro 2007

(Retirado do blog Alcobaça Gentes e Frentes)


17 Comments:

Blogger Sophiamar said...

E se víssemos os impostos aplicados em obras de solidariedade ninguém os lamentaria. Porém ,há tanta miséria por aí,tanto bairro degradado, tanta criança mal vestida e mal nutrida, tanto velho a viver com uns míseros tostões por mês que é caso para perguntar onde está a ser aplicada a parte destinada à solidariedade social.Eu quero saber. Todos nós o queremos. Quanto á tradição do Pão por Deus vai-se perdendo, como outras. Um dia português da solidariedade? Porque não! Eu sei que todos os dias o devem ser mas um para reflectir no que se fez e há por fazer não seria uma ideia descabida.
Beijinhos

7:50 AM  
Blogger Jose Gonçalves said...

Bom dia Aramis

Sei que és uma activa defensora da solidariedade social. O teu empenhamento nas questões sociais estão à vista de todos nós que te conhecemos. Até porque em São Martinho do Porto, infelizmente, existe muita família carenciada. E tu lutas para minimizar isso. O meu reconhecimento para a tua acção e, já sabes, o meu apoio se dele precisares.
Um beijinho e um bom fim de semana.
José Gonçalves

6:32 AM  
Blogger Maria Faia said...

Querida Amiga,

Passei para desejar um óptimo fim de semana e, não pude deixar de ler a interessante postagem que nos deixa sobre o Pão por Deus.
De facto, o Professor Moisés Espírito Santo, estudioso desta matérias da sociologia, oferece-nos com simplicidade e grande sabedoria conhecimentos relativos às nossas tradições, sobre os quais muitas vezes nem pensamos.

Por tudo isto e pela sua Amizade, deixo-lhe um beijo agradecido.

Maria Faia

2:32 PM  
Blogger elvira carvalho said...

Cada vez há mais famílias carenciadas a precisar da solidariedade. Ou não. O que as famílias carenciadas precisam é de um emprego, casa, educação e saúde.
Nós ajudamos. Hoje, amanhã, e talvez depois de amanhã. Mas que ajuda, ajuda quando pode. Quem precisa, precisa sempre.
Bom Domingo
Um abraço

5:31 PM  
Blogger Um Momento said...

E a solidariedade precisasse
Toda a que possamos ~
Como é triste ver não so no nosso pais , mas pelo mundo inteiro a miseria ...
Gostei imenso do teu texto
Algumas coisas desconhecia
EStamos sempre a aprender

Beijo grande... em ti

(*)

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